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Posts Tagged ‘bare-root transplanting’

Contractors, arborists, and landscape architects in Massachusetts would do well to check out the Ecological Landscaping Association’s September events list.  The ELA is offering a number of really good workshops, on topics ranging from Boston-area restoration projects to the use of fire in landscape management, as well as a two-part, two-day workshop on root issues.  

One day of the root work will focus on soils(f you’ve read any of this blog, or Taking Place In The Trees, you’ll know that I’m interested in roots.)  In the air tool workshop, entitled At The Root: Air Tools Workshop, Rolf Briggs and Matt Foti will be talking about using air to work in the root zone, to decompact soils, to transplant trees and shrubs and also about how to plant nursery-grown stock properly.  

Matt and Rolf have done a similar workshop for the Mass. Arborists Association in the past, and Matt holds an annual workshop on proper planting techniques.  Being able to see what a root system looks like is eye-opening.  Learning — not just from written specs or a generic tree-planting detail — how a tree or shrub should be planted is essential, and well worth the price of admission.  I have been to at least three of these workshops, and learn something new at each one, and so can say that this workshop is one every landscape architect who designs plantings, and every contractor who sells plantings should attend.

Michael waters in a hemlock whose root flare has been excavated with air.

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I just got a rough cut today of the video, shot last summer, of the moving of a very large (about 14″ caliper, 30′ height) London Plane Tree in Wellesley, MA. It’s taken a while to edit several hours of footage down to a half an hour, but it’s about done, and in the next few weeks I hope to have added commentary. This video is from the project run by Matt Foti’s crew, aided by Mike Furgal, and it showcases the techniques used in air-tool transplanting. I hope to be able to preview the rough cut at New England Grows, and have the final version completed by the end of February; if there’s enough interest in the landscape architecture, architecture, or arboriculture communities I’ll sell copies. Stay tuned.

The first of five 12-14' caliper London Plane trees being excavated with air tools and transplanted bare root in August 2009.

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This tree has never been bare-rooted, as far as I know (though who could say, at this point?) It lives at Elm Bank, Mass. Hort’s headquarters in Wellesley, MA, and I took these photos at last week’s air-tool workshop there.

Norway spruce at Elm Bank.

Norway spruce at Elm Bank.


  Somehow it seems that Morticia Addams should come drifting into the picture to perch on this fantastic bench, sweeping a murky gloom behind her.

Somehow it seems that Morticia Addams should come drifting into the picture to perch on this fantastic bench, sweeping a murky gloom behind her.


For those of you still clicking on this site to see air-tool transplant posts, check out Taking Place In The Trees (www.takingplaceinthetrees.net).

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Here’s a quick post to alert readers to the Massachusetts Arborists Association Special Seminar and Demonstration on air tool use. A team of four arborists — Mike Furgal, Matt Foti, Rolf Briggs, and Dave Leonard — will be showing how compressed-air tools can be used in arboricultural work (root forensics, bare-root planting, bare-root transplanting, shrub moving, etc.), and will discuss the advancements that this technology provide those working with or using woody plants in the landscape.

The seminar will be on September 10 at Elm Bank, the Massachusetts Horticultural Society’s property in Wellesley, MA — check the MAA link above for registration information. Registration is not limited to arborists, so interested landscape architects and contractors can go and see this work. I highly recommend signing up; last year’s seminar at Matt Foti’s farm, where Mike Furgal debuted the air-tool transplanting method, was really outstanding, and this year there’s bound to be even more information available and a great deal of informed and informative discussion.

One point: Bare-root transplanting, either with an air-tool or by root-washing, may never replace other methods of transplanting. But for specimen tree transplanting, where the value of an existing tree merits the effort involved, it is currently the gold standard. The number of roots retained with bare-root transplanting prevents the tremendous stress caused by other methods, and should be considered a valuable tool in the kit available to landscape architects, arborists, and contractors.

Bare-rooting allows for the moving of a tree this large in less than one day...

Bare-rooting allows for the moving of a tree this large in less than one day...


while preserving this much root mass.

while preserving this much root mass.

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Matt Foti took these photos from last week’s big transplant project, and they illustrate some useful points.

Air-tool excavation is a very messy process, and it bears mentioning again that eye, ear, head, and face protection are really necessary.  Mike Furgal is wearing a face mask here; a respirator would give him even greater lung protection.  Blowing a good sandy loam is one thing; when pebbles and small rocks show up in the soil they become missiles, so long sleeves and pants should also be worn.

Air-tool excavation is a very messy process, and it bears mentioning again that eye, ear, head, and face protection are really necessary. Mike Furgal is wearing a face mask here; a respirator would give him even greater lung protection. Blowing a good sandy loam is one thing; when pebbles and small rocks show up in the soil they become missiles, so long sleeves and pants should also be worn.


Here is what a well-tied tree looks like in transit.  Note how the roots have been carefully pigtailed, and tiebacks to the tree's trunk are done neatly and professionally, to preserve the roots during excavation and in transit.

Here is what a well-tied tree looks like in transit. Note how the roots have been carefully pigtailed, and tiebacks to the tree's trunk are done neatly and professionally, to preserve the roots during excavation and in transit.


This project took place in late July, during a week of 85-degree heat.  Leaf turgor pressure was maintained throughout by the trees themselves (aided with some in-process watering).

This project took place in late July, during a week of 85-degree heat. Leaf turgor pressure was maintained throughout by the trees themselves (aided with some in-process watering).


Keeping the pigtails neat from the start makes unbundling and spreading the roots fairly easy.  The tree is now resting in the crater dug for its new home; the crew will unbundle and spread the roots out radially, pack soil underneath them to help level the tree, and backfill, water, and mulch the transplant.  Using a forklift allows the arborists to look under the root plate and gauge its bottom profile, which helps in shaping the floor of the planting crater.

Keeping the pigtails neat from the start makes unbundling and spreading the roots fairly easy. The tree is now resting in the crater dug for its new home; the crew will unbundle and spread the roots out radially, pack soil underneath them to help level the tree, and backfill, water, and mulch the transplant. Using a forklift allows the arborists to look under the root plate and gauge its bottom profile, which helps in shaping the floor of the planting crater.

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One reader wrote in with this comment to my last post:

“It would be no good to specify bare root unless you were thoroughly acquainted with the land – soil, ledge, utility lines, for example – and spreading roots of other trees.”

And my answer, because there’s a lot to it:

Actually, bare root is good just for the reasons you enumerate; it’s much easier to plant roots alone than it is to plant a big slug of soil encasing a plant’s roots. And landscape architects, contractors, and arborists have ways of dealing with the issues you mention.

Contractors are required to call Dig Safe (http://www.digsafe.com/) to locate underground utilities on site before any excavation begins. The mis-location of utilities has been known to happen, but excavators are (ideally) careful about how they dig and about stopping when they hit something. Accidents can and do happen, but safeguards have been worked out to minimize their occurrence. (We had a little excitement at last week’s transplanting site over a gas line — apparently DigSafe found one gas line and marked it, but didn’t realize there was another several feet away. The mini-excavator found it — without breaking it — and DigSafe was called out to mark its course immediately.)

Irrigation lines, visible in some of the photos from last week’s posts, are considered expendable/fixable during a construction project. They are relatively flimsy and they run everywhere under many projects, so it is understood that they may be broken (even a shovel can break one), and will be fixed after construction and planting have been completed.

Bare-rooting a tree or shrub for planting — regardless of the surrounding soil type — often is better for the plant than planting it in a soil root ball. When one type of soil is introduced to another, as when a clayey soil root ball is placed in a sand/loam soil, the interface between those two types of soil resists the movement of water from one to the other. That means that if a clay root ball gets watered in thoroughly, water may not move so readily into the sandy loam. What incentive does the root mass have to move beyond that interface and thus into the sandy loam? Not much. Opening up a root ball and mixing some of its clay with the surrounding soil in the wall of the hole will help, but still — with a bare-root plant that issue is a non-issue. Even with a poor soil, it’s easy to mix some planting loam in with the surrounding soil (again, you want to mix, not simply dump a pile that will give you that same resistant interface) and plant the bare-root tree or shrub in the mix; doing so will make it possible for the plant’s roots to reach as far as they have to for the moisture they need.

it is a tendency, unfortunately, of many planting crews (especially on very large jobs where speed is of the essence and there may be little job training for laborers) simply to push the burlap on a root ball down just below the surface, or in some instances to leave it tied in place before backfilling. Natural burlap eventually will rot, but it can take years, especially given the subsurface soil environment, where the burlap is protected from the atmospheric oxygen and UV light that breaks it down so readily in the nursery. In the meantime, that burlap constrains root extension into the surrounding soil, and can contribute to the roots turning back in to the root ball, which affects the growth of the whole tree. So — another reason bare-root is a good approach: no burlap to fool around with and to constrain root growth.

As for ledge: You’re unlikely to know the location and profile of subsurface ledge until you start digging. That’s just the way it is. Again, though, the presence of high ledge (that is, ledge just below the soil surface) argues for using a bare-root planting method. Since tree roots typically live in the top 12″ of soil (sometimes 18″, and sometimes deeper, given the plant genus and the depth of good soil), and tree root balls can be as deep as 36″, planting a tree with soil around its roots means that you have to accommodate that root ball. Sometimes you can slice off its bottom with little ill effect on the roots. Sometimes you can’t. With a bare-root plant, you don’t have to jimmy around so much with adjusting the height of the root ball. Certainly, you’ll have to be sure you have adequate soil depth to plant the roots themselves (spreading them out radially, as they typically need to grow), but bare-root planting gives you much more flexibility in this regard.

OK. That’s it for this post, because I have to hit today’s design deadline, and this was a digression from working on it. Sorry about the lack of photos on this post; next one will have a set of really good ones, courtesy of Matt Foti.

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For those of you checking out this blog for the air-tool transplanting posts, you may find it helpful to read the comments on those posts for more information…And if you’re a landscape architect or arborist and have observations, questions, comments, please feel free to submit them in the comment box as well. This technology and its applications are so new that the more good information gets exchanged, the better.

Lots of root mass.  Irrigation lines run through it; they are cut during the trenching process, and then pulled out in feet-long lengths once enough soil has been blown away from the roots.

Lots of root mass. Irrigation lines run through it; they are cut during the trenching process, and then pulled out in feet-long lengths once enough soil has been blown away from the roots.

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